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Indicative tenses

AR

ER, IR

 

present

o, as, a, amos, an

er = o, es, e, emos, en

ir = o, es, e, imos, en

I walk, I am walking,

present participle

-ando

-iendo

-ing   (walking)

present progressive

estar + present participle (gerund)

 

estoy caminando

 

estamos bebiendo

I am walking (in progress)

We are drinking

past progressive

estar (imperfect)

+ present participle

 

estaba caminando

 

estábamos bebiendo

I was walking

We were drinking

preterite

é, aste, ó, amos, aron

í, iste, , imos, ieron

I walked

imperfect

aba, abas, aba, ábamos, aban

ía, ías, ía, íamos, ían

I was walking, I used to walk

futuro

infinitive +

é, ás, á, emos, án

caminaré

I will walk

condicional

infinitive +

ía, ías, ía, íamos, ían

caminaría

I would walk

Indicative - Compound tenses

 

 

past participle

-ado

-ido

walked, shown, been, eaten

can be used as an adjective

present perfect

haber + past participle

he, has, ha, hemos, han

 

he caminado

 

hemos bebido

I have walked

We have drunk

past perfect(pluperfect)

haber + past participle

había, habías, había etc.

 

había caminado

 

habíamos bebido

I had walked

We had drunk

future perfect

haber + past participle

habré, habrás, habrá, habremos, habrán

 

habré caminado

 

habremos bebido

I will have walked

I will have drunk

conditional perfect

haber + past participle

habría, habrías, habría etc.

 

habría caminado

 

habríamos bebido

I would have walked

I could have walked

I would have drunk

Subjunctive tenses

 

 

present

 

yo form opposite vowel

camine, camines, camine,

caminemos, caminen

I walk

(after a subjunctive trigger)

imperfect

preterite ellos form

drop “ron”

add endings

caminara, caminaras, caminara, camináramos, caminaran

I walked

(after a subjunctive trigger)

present perfect

haber + past participle

haya, hayas, haya, hayamos, hayan

haya caminado

hayamos bebido

I have walked (drunk)

(after a subjunctive trigger)

past perfect

haber + past participle

hubiera, hubieras, hubiera, hubiéramos, hubiera

hubiera caminado

hubiéramos bebido

I would have walked

(after a subjunctive trigger)

Imperative Mood- Commands (Mandatos)

 

 

 

 

Affirmative

 

Negative

 

 

get the “s” out

camina

subjunctive

no camines

 

usted

subjunctive Ud

camine

same as +

no camine

 

ustedes

subjunctive Uds.

caminen

same as +

no caminen

 

nosotros

subjunctive nosotros

caminemos

¨let´s walk¨

same as +

no caminemos